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The Country Programme

 

Activities by Region

 

Land Development

 

School Feeding

 

Urban Food Assistance

 

Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping

 

Contingency Plan

 

Donor Assistance to Ethiopia

 

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The Country Programme

Basic Portfolio 1998-2003

 

ACTIVITY

PROJECTED ANNUAL BENEFICIARIES

VALUE
US$ MILLION

METRIC
TONNAGE

 

Land Rehabilitation

754,000

52.8

146,628

 

School Feeding

130,000

20.6

26,954

 

Urban Food Assistance

11,200

8.3

20,237

 

Pilot Initiatives

-

8.3

22,198

 

TOTAL

895,200

90.0

216,017

 
 

The first five-year Country Programme (1998 - 2003) was approved by the Executive Board in May 1998 and signed by the Government of Ethiopia in December 1998. The goals of the Country Programme are to improve the level of food security of approximately 895,200 beneficiaries per year. The Country Programme provides for 216,000 MT of food aid (valued at US $103.5 million) for current development activities and new initiatives in the pastoral areas of the country. However, supplementary resources estimated at 181,000 MT of food, valued at US $88 million, would be required from the Donor community in order to fully implement the proposed programme.

 

The programme provides a safety net in food insecure areas and aims to increase investment in soil and land protection, water harvesting and afforestation. Human development of the poor, women and children is enhanced through improved nutrition and better access to education, family planning and health services. Temporary employment is being created. Women, too, are being encouraged to participate at all levels in WFP-supported operations. Finally, WFP Ethiopia is working to increase availability and access to food at critical times of food shortage.

 

In line with these objectives, WFP Ethiopia is focusing on:

 
  • Rehabilitation of rural lands, afforestation and development of infrastructure

  • Improving education through school feeding

  • Urban slum physical infrastructure improvement and support to vulnerable women and children

  • Pilot development initiatives in the pastoral areas

  • Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM)

  • Gender mainstreaming

  • Monitoring and Evaluation

 

The Country Programme is coordinated with the Ministry of Planning and Economic Cooperation (MEDAC). Individual activities are implemented by Regional Bureaux of Agriculture and Education and the Administrative Region of Addis Ababa.

 

The Country Programme will be reviewed and evaluated in the year 2001. The review report will be submitted to the Executive Board in early 2002 and the lessons learned, together with the Executive Board comments, will serve as the basis for the formulation of the second Country Programme.

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Activities by Region

Click one of the regions of Ethiopia to find out more about that region and WFP's involvement there.

 
 

Tigray

Map of Ethiopia - click a region

Afar

 

Amhara

Addis Ababa

 

Beneshangul
Gumaz

Oromiya

 

Gambella

Dire Dawa
& Harari

 

SNNPR

Somali

 
 

Map
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Tigray

************ Insert Text here

 

Land Rehabilitation

46,095 

beneficiaries

 

  

13,263 

MT Wheat

  

254 

MT Oil

 

School Feeding

45,900 

beneficiaries

 

  

1,175 

MT Biscuits

  

405 

MT Famix Drink

  

149 

MT Famix MS

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Amhara

************ Insert Text here

 

Land Rehabilitation

39,510 

beneficiaries

 

  

10,457 

MT Wheat

  

200 

MT Oil

 

School Feeding

45,000 

beneficiaries

 

  

1,175 

MT Biscuits

  

405 

MT Famix Drink

  

149 

MT Famix MS

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Beneshangul Gumaz

************ Insert Text here

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Gambella

************ Insert Text here

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

SNNPRS

************ Insert Text here

 

Land Rehabilitation

19,755 

beneficiaries

 

  

7,073 

MT Wheat

  

175 

MT Oil

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Afar

************ Insert Text here

 

School Feeding

4,200 

beneficiaries

 

  

81 

MT Biscuits

  

28 

MT Famix Drink

  

10 

MT Famix MS

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Addis Ababa

************ Insert Text here

 

Urban Assistance

9432 

beneficiaries

 

  

7,166 

MT Wheat

  

622 

MT Famix

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Oromiya

************ Insert Text here

 

Land Rehabilitation

26,340 

beneficiaries

 

  

9,405 

MT Wheat

  

333 

MT Oil

 

School Feeding

6,000 

beneficiaries

 

  

180 

MT Biscuits

  

62 

MT Famix Drink

  

23 

MT Famix MS

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Dire Dawa & Harari

************ Insert Text here

 

Map 
Regional Map of Ethiopia

Somali

************ Insert Text here

 

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Rehabilitation and Development of Rural Lands & Infrastructure

Ethiopia is faced with an alarming rate of soil erosion. Every year an estimated 1.5 - 2 billion tonnes of top soil is washed away, which seriously undermines efforts to promote food security. Without efforts to halt and reverse the process of land degradation and develop basic infrastructure, food deficits will increase. Other factors which limit agricultural production include an inadequate road network which hampers the supply of farm inputs and marketing of agricultural produce, a severe shortage of village water supplies resulting in much time and effort, particularly for women, to secure daily water requirements, limited use of irrigation, negligible off-farm employment opportunities, weak extension services and erratic rainfall.

 

WFP support for land rehabilitation, now in its third phase, began in the mid 1970s and uses food aid as an incentive in support of soil conservation, rural infrastructure construction, and afforestation activities in areas affected by chronic food insecurity. In accordance with government guidelines, the project is decentralizing management and has reorganised itself locally. This enables communities to identify their priorities, plan activities, and provides a benchmark against which to measure progress. The programme is expected to protect and develop 135,000 hectares of land through various soil and water conservation measures and construct basic infrastructure in 450 rural communities.

 
 

Beneficiaries & Food Distribution by Region 1998

 

REGION

BENEFICIARIES

WHEAT
MT

OIL
MT

 

Amhara

39,510

10,457

200

 

Oromia

26,340

9,405

333

 

SNNPRS

19,755

7,073

175

 

Tigray

46,095

13,263

254

 

TOTAL

131,700

40,198

962

 

Achievements

 
  • An average of 131,700 people directly benefited from the WFP food rations provided to the project in 1998. Of those, 32% were women.

  • Thanks to WFP food and non-food support to this project, communities were able in 1998 to reduce the effects of erosion and better protect their soil by adding 19,737 km of stone bunds, 8,303 km of soil bunds, 814 km of check dams, 6,160 hectares of area closure, 7,920 km of hillside terracing, 303 million seedlings, 24 ponds, 181 springs and 268 km of roads.

  • WFP Ethiopia requested supplementary resources and supplied a total of 40,198 tonnes of wheat to the project in 1998, exceeding the original target delivery of 30,000 tonnes. Sufficient food was pre-positioned in all regions during the latter half of 1998, enabling activities planned for 1999 to be at the maximum level possible.

  • In collaboration with the VAM Unit, the Country Office conducted a pilot assessment on the impact of food for work in Chencha woreda of North Omo Zone of the Southern Region in July-September 1998.

  • WFP Ethiopia's efforts to obtain material and equipment met with a highly positive Donor response in 1998, particularly from the Governments of Norway and Japan. During the year, WFP handed over to the Ministry of Agriculture 68 motorcycles and 6 pick-ups worth over US $250,000 as well as 6 Rubb Hall tents worth US $83,000 and agricultural tools worth some US $500,000. In addition, Donor commitments were made to provide an additional 30 motorcycles, 4 pick-ups, as well as authorisation for the local purchase of US $269,673 worth of agricultural tools, and another US $300,000 worth of imported agricultural tools for poor farmers.

  • All concerned regions have received food on time from WFP. Efforts were made to encourage regions to use the private sector instead of relying only on project donated trucks (Amhara, SNNPRS and Tigray all attempted to cover their own transport requirements using private transport whereas in previous years only the project fleet was used).

 

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Improving Education through School Feeding

Ethiopia is one of the educationally least developed countries in the world, having the world's lowest primary education enrollment ratio. Adult illiteracy is 66% (54% for men, 74% for women) compared to an African average of 43%. It is estimated that only 29% of the relevant age group was enrolled in primary schools in 1994/5 (the Sub Saharan Africa average is 73%). Due to high drop-out and repetition, only about one fifth of children enrolling in primary school complete grade six.

 
 

Beneficiaries & Food Distribution by Region 1998

 

REGION

BENEFICIARIES

BISCUITS
MT

FAMIX DRINK
MT

FAMIX MS
MT

 

Afar

4,200

81

28

10

 

Amhara

45,900

1,175

405

149

 

Oromia

6,000

180

62

23

 

Tigray

45,900

1,175

405

149

 

TOTAL

102,000

2,610

900

331

 
 

As part of the Government's strategy to increase enrollment and reduce drop-out rates in marginal, drought-prone areas of Ethiopia, the Ministry of Education (MoE), with support from WFP, began project ETH 4929 "Improving Education through School Feeding" on a pilot basis in 1994. With overwhelming positive results, WFP's assistance was doubled for primary school pupils for the one year "bridging phase" during the 1997/98 school year. A new phase has been approved and covers the period 1999 - 2003. The number of beneficiaries is expected to increase to 140,000 students in the year 2002/3. WFP's school feeding project seeks to increase enrollment, stabilize attendance and reduce drop-out rates. Particular emphasis has been placed on improving girls' attendance rates at selected kindergartens and primary schools. Parents are being encouraged to actively contribute to the operation of these schools. School feeding also improves children's ability to concentrate and assimilate information by relieving short term hunger.

 

WFP Ethiopia has agreed with the Government to allow wheat to be imported and swapped with locally produced biscuits and Famix. Thus, Donors unable to provide cash could contribute additional resources to help the project. WFP hopes to include an additional 75,000 students per year. With support from the Ministry of Education, WFP is actively seeking to mobilise resources for water point and latrine construction at assisted schools, which will greatly contribute to creating a conducive environment for girls.

 

Achievements

 
  • Currently some 102,000 primary school children, of whom 43 percent are girls, are participating in the highly food insecure areas of Tigray, Afar, Amhara and Oromia.

  • The School Feeding Manual was revised by an international consultant and translated into Amharic.

  • WFP Ethiopia purchased from local and international markets non-food items for the project worth US $72,000. Items included 97,000 cups, 20,000 plates, 436 cooking pots, 436 buckets, 436 basins, 436 tubs, 436 drums and one vehicle for monitoring.

  • WFP Ethiopia's support to the education sector under this project was officially recognized in 1998 as part of the Education Sector Development Programme (ESDP), which is strongly supported by major Donors.

 

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Urban Food Assistance Facility

Almost 80% of Addis Ababa's 2.4 million population are slum dwellers or squatters. Recent NGO surveys in slum neighborhoods suggest that 60-75% of the households are headed by single mothers with multiple children. WFP's food assistance is channeled through NGOs in the poorest kebeles, or neighborhoods, in Addis Ababa. The project aims to reach malnourished children under five, pregnant and nursing women and other men and women belonging to the most vulnerable segments of society. This goal is achieved through food interventions in support of mother and child health care activities, income generating activity schemes, skills training and food-for-work activities. The women visiting health centers also receive services such as nutrition, health and family planning education, primary health care and social development. Infrastructure works improve hygienic and sanitary conditions in the kebeles, contribute to a healthier living environment and provide on-the-job-training in construction skills.

 
 

Urban Assistance

9432 

beneficiaries

 
  

7,166 

MT Wheat

  

622 

MT Famix

 
 

This programme is improving the living standards and alleviating the food insecurity of poor households in the poorest slum areas of Addis Ababa. Food aid is being provided through local NGOs for development activities. The nutritional status of pregnant and nursing mothers is being improved with additional food and micro-nutrients. Children under the age of two are receiving a supplementary ration in conjunction with their enrollment in a growth monitoring programme. These measures aim to increase the attendance of mothers and children at healthcare and family planning facilities.

 

WFP works with several NGOs on this project:

 

Ethiopian Aid

 

CARE Ethiopia

 

World Ort Union

 

Women Empowerment and Assistance Forum

 

Nazareth Children Integrated Development

 

GOAL Ethiopia and the Street Children Programme

 

Daughters of Charity

 

Abebech Gobena Orphanage and School

 

Integrated Holistic Approach

 

The Association for the Rehabilitation of Girls

 

Cheshire Foundation Ethiopia

 

The Ethiopian Gemini Trust

 

Almaz Children and Family Support Organization

 

Achievements

 
  • A one day workshop on work norms in an urban setting was organized by WFP for its implementing partners involved in infrastructure upgrading activities.

  • A Nutritional Baseline Survey for the micro-nutrient sub-component was carried out.

  • Workshops on implementation enhancement and qualitative monitoring were organized by WFP for its implementing partners.

  • WFP Ethiopia organized the first NGO information sharing forum to be held on a quarterly basis in future.

  • World Food Day was celebrated with a lunch for children at three urban NGOs.

  • WFP hosted Donor visits to several NGOs in December.

 

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Vulnerability Analysis & Mapping

The Country Office Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) Unit, established in late 1994, aims to provide decision makers with insights into the vulnerability of populations and their changing food security status. Information generated by the VAM Unit is used to support both development and relief activities. Work of the unit falls into three main areas: food needs assessment, current season monitoring and early warning and support for Country Office development programmes and government capacity building.

 

Food needs assessment is one of VAM's primary activities. A needs assessment methodology has been developed and is critical to the FAO/WFP annual assessment of needs conducted every fall. The results of the assessment are published in the FAO/WFP Food and Crop Assessment which provides Donors with valuable information on which to base their relief pledges. Existing information, mostly from Government Ministries, and data collected during rural appraisals undertaken by the Country Office, with the Government of Ethiopia, Donors and NGOs is collected and analyzed.

 

VAM has systematized Current Season Monitoring and Early Warning within the Country Office to regularly monitor the progression of the agricultural season locally. Satellite images are received and processed every 10 days to provide updates on the progression of the rainy season. Data is used for maps and graphs, which are shared with WFP's key collaborating partners. Thus, potential problem areas are more precisely defined and areas can be targeted for field visits.

 

VAM takes the lead role within the Country Office in establishing documented, standardized official data sets detailing demographics, meteorology, market prices, food-aid, agriculture, transportation, topography and education. The unit also enables project officers and decision makers to maximize the efficiency of targeting and resource allocation by developing maps which clearly juxtapose the geographic locations of development projects with historical food insecurity patterns.

 

Achievements

 
  • The data produced by VAM for food needs assessment is consistently relied upon in deriving reliable food aid requirements.

  • Harmonization between WFP and DPPC on needs assessment via the joint technical working group.

  • VAM databases have recently been made more accessible to the Country Office via storage of the data on the Country Office local area network. Potential users have been trained on to how to access these data sets.

  • Mapping "areas and populations in need" were produced, covering more than 40 years. These maps, as well as papers on localized food security, have been presented by the VAM Unit at various workshops and conferences attended by food security experts and decision makers.

  • Assisting host country government agencies, Donors and NGOs in the areas of mapping and database management.

 

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Contingency Plan

When the armed conflict erupted between Ethiopia and Eritrea in May 1998, about 170,000 people were displaced as a result of the hostilities. Since the dispute has remained unresolved and the number of displaced has increased to over 250,000 people, WFP Ethiopia has prepared contingency plans for various possible scenarios on how the Country Office would respond in terms of food delivery and distribution. Under the UN Country Team Contingency Plan, WFP, UNDP, EUE, FAO, UNICEF and IOM would work together to ensure that the displaced, the communities hosting the displaced and returnees have sufficient food to meet their nutritional needs.

 

The Country Office's relief unit recently participated in a multi-agency assessment of displaced people due to the Ethiopia-Eritrea conflict. This effort included a contingency planning exercise whereby estimates of "potentially displaced" were generated given various scenarios involving an escalating conflict. VAM's geographic information system (GIS) and mapping capabilities, along with its local level population data sets, were instrumental in estimating numbers of people, and thus potentially displaced, living within and near current conflict areas.

 

Ongoing monitoring of in-country food stocks, road conditions, warehousing capacities and the availability of trucks will enable the Logistics Unit to respond to emergencies. Storage facilities in the affected regions and alternate transportation options have been reviewed. Coordination between the Country Office and the Ethiopian Food Security Reserve Authority (EFSRA) is ongoing. Under the UN Country Team Contingency Plan, the Logistics Unit will coordinate the efficient transport of relief supplies and personnel with the Government.

 

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Highlights of Donor Assistance to Ethiopia

Over the last fourteen years the country has received a total of 9.5 million MT of food assistance, or an average of 677,500 MT per year. Since 1990, and up until the current crisis, the majority of these deliveries passed through the port of Assab in Eritrea. For the period 1990-1997, WFP has been the primary supplier (31.6%) of Donor food aid to the country, followed by bilateral donations from the United States (26.9%) and the European Union (20.8%). The majority of total food aid deliveries during this period have gone to support emergency and refugee operations (57% and 16% respectively).

 
 

DONOR

RELIEF

 DEVELOPMENT

REFUGEE

TOTAL

% OF 1998 TOTAL

 

Australia

7,860

2,700

0

10,560

4.8%

 

Austria

0

0

126

126

0.1%

 

Belgium

0

0

2,000

2,000

0.9%

 

Canada

0

5,620

0

5,620

2.5%

 

Denmark

7,247

0

3,215

10,462

4.7%

 

EU

36,105

20,787

24,234

81,126

36.6%

 

Finland

986

0

0

986

0.4%

 

France

3,000

0

0

3,000

1.4%

 

Germany

0

3,630

10,238

13,868

6.2%

 

Ireland

776

775

308

1,859

0.8%

 

Japan

2,902

1,786

0

4,688

2.1%

 

Netherlands

702

0

4,230

4,932

2.2%

 

Norway

3,107

0

0

3,107

1.4%

 

Sweden

13,116

9,200

1,210

23,526

10.6%

 

Switzerland

2,000

0

2,679

4,679

2.1%

 

UK

0

0

4,950

4,950

2.2%

 

USA

3,876

10,000

28,800

42,676

19.2%

 

WFP

0

3,737

0

3,737

1.7%

 

TOTAL

81,677

58,235

81,990

221,902

100%

 

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